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National Science Standards
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Benchmarks for Science Literacy is the Project 2061 statement of what all students should know and be able to do in science, mathematics, and technology by the end of grades 2, 5, 8, and 12. The recommendations at each grade level suggest reasonable progress toward the adult science literacy goals laid out in the project's 1989 report Science for All Americans.Benchmarks can help educators decide what to include in (or exclude from) a core curriculum, when to teach it, and why.

Benchmarks is not a curriculum, a curriculum framework, or a plan for a curriculum. It provides educators with sequences of specific learning goals that they can use to design a core curriculum—one that makes sense to them and will help students achieve the basic science literacy goals outlined in Science for All Americans.  (See below)

201381922535439_image.jpg image Americans agree that our students urgently need better science education. The Standards offers a coherent vision of what it means to be scientifically literate, describing what all students should understand and be able to do in science. The volume reflects the principles that learning science is an inquiry-based process, that science in schools should reflect the intellectual traditions of contemporary science, and that all Americans have a role in science education reform.
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Project 2061 began its work in 1985—the year Halley's Comet passed near Earth. Children who were just starting school then will see the return of the Comet. What scientific and technological changes will they also see in their lifetime? How can today's education prepare them to make sense of how the world works; to think critically and independently; and to lead interesting, responsible, and productive lives in a culture increasingly shaped by science and technology?

With expert panels of scientists, mathematicians, and technologists, Project 2061 set out to identify what was most important for the next generation to know and be able to do in science, mathematics, and technology—what would make them science literate. The panels' recommendations were integrated into Project 2061's 1989 publication,Science for All Americans.This publication defines science literacy and lays out some principles for effective learning and teaching. In coherent prose, it articulates and connects fundamental ideas in science without technical vocabulary and dense detail.

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